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A Case of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Syndrome Manifesting as Seizure
Byung Moo Ahn, Kyung Min Lee, Dong Kil Na, Yun Ho Shin, Sung Woong Jung and Jacob Lee
Department of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Vol.42 Num.1 (p57~60)
Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) syndrome is defined as transient symptomatic illness associated with high-titer HIV replication and an expansive immunologic response to the invading pathogen. Seizure and epilepsy are not rare among the HIV-infected patients. Major causes of HIV-related seizure are focal brain lesion, meningitis, metabolic derangement, and no identified causes other than HIV itself. Generally, seizure in HIV infected patients develops during the advanced stages of the disease; decreased immunity and increased chances of developing opportunistic infection in the central nervous system (CNS) predispose them to have seizures attacks. We report a case of acute HIV syndrome which presented as new-onset seizure. Since no evidence of focal brain lesion or any opportunistic infection could be found, the most probable cause of seizure could be attributed to acute HIV syndrome. The patient got better after taking anti-epileptic drug and there have been no further recurrence of episodes so far.
Keywords : Seizure, Acute HIV syndrome